Teorías sobre la plusvalía (Tomo IV de El Capital) vol. III

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Authors: Karl Marx
Tags: Ciencias sociales
with sufficient precision for all practical purposes”; or with Mr. Mill, that “in estimating equal quantities of labour, an allowance would, of course, be included for different degrees of hardness and skill”. Instances of this kind entirely destroy the integrity of the rule.» ( ibidem , p. 210)
    149. «There are only two possible methods of comparing one quantity of labour with another; one is to compare them by the time expended , the other by the result produced . The former is applicable to all kinds of labour; the latter can be used only in comparing labour bestowed on similar articles. If therefore, in estimating [506] two different sorts of work, the time spent will not determine the proportion between the quantities of labour, it must remain undetermined and undeterminable.» ( ibidem , p. 215)
    149. «Take any two commodities of equal value. A and B, one produced by fixed capital and the other by labour, without the intervention of machinery; and suppose, that without any change whatever in the fixed capital or the quantity of labour, there should happen to be a rise in the value of labour; according to Mr. Ricardo’s own showing, A and B would be instantly altered in their relation to each other; that is, they would become unequal in value.» ( ibidem , pp. 215-216)
    150. «To these cases we may add the effect of time on value . If a commodity take more time than another for its production, although no more capital and labour , its value will be greater. The influence of this cause is admitted by Mr. Ricardo, but Mr. Mill contends…» ( ibidem , p. 217)
    150. «… although we have arranged commodities under three divisions, yet [74] they are all, not only promiscuously exchanged for each other, but blended in production . A commodity, therefore, may own part of its value to monopoly, and part to those causes which determine the value of unmonopolized products. An article, for instance, may be manufactured amidst the freest competition out of a raw material, which a complete monopoly enables its producer to sell at six times the actual cost…» ( ibidem , p. 223)
    150. «In this case it is obvious, that although the value of the article might be correctly said to be determined by the quantity of capital expended upon it by the manufacturer, yet no analysis could possibly resolve the value of the capital into quantity of labour.» ( ibidem , pp. 223-224)
    151. «… the introduction of machines into any employment necessarily occasions an equal or greater demand for the disengaged labourers in some other employment.» ( J. R. McCuIIoch «The Principles of Political Economy…», Edimburgo, 1825, pp. 181-182; citado según: [ John Cazenove ] «Outlines of Political Economy…», Londres, 1832, pp. 119-120)
    152. «… for resemblances : and proceding upon this principle, he si led to confound material with immaterial objects; productive with unproductive labour; capital with revenue; the food of the labourer with the labourer himself; production with consumption; and labour with profits.» ( T. R. Malthus «Definitions in Political Economy…», Londres, 1827, p. 69-70) [Marx reproduce la primera parte de la cita como síntesis del pensamiento expuesto por Malthus en las siguientes palabras: «el señor M’Culloch seems, no como otros expositores de una ciencia, to look for characteristic differences , but only for resemblances…»
    152. «Mr. M’Culloch, in his Principles of Political Economy , divides value into real and exchangeable ; [75] the former, he says, (page 225 [76] ) is dependent on the quantity of labour required for the production of any commodity, [77] and the latter on the quantity of labour, or of any other commodity , for which it will exchange; and these two values ire , he says, (page 215), identical , in the ordinary state of things, that is, when the supply of commodities in the market is exactly proportioned to the effectual demand for them. Now, if they be identical, the two

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